8th Annual Session of Global Forum on Human Settlements
(30-31 October 2018, United Nations, Bangkok)
Blockchain as a technology has the potential to become one of the most pivotal routes to change for our societies.
The movement away from the centralised model of control which is the basis of almost everything we do, where we relying on a trusted centre. Blockchain gives us the mechanism to de-centralise, to build organically, to create new structures of control and engagement.
This is a fundamental shift in how we structure ourselves in society.
With so much media attention on blockchain has focused mostly on the rise (and falls) of crypto currency valuations, it is easy to lose sight of the wider picture of the blockchain opportunity.
Add to that the uncoordinated nature of the non-centralised model, the slower approach that organics growth brings and the growing number of scams and mismanagement scandals and the result becomes a very fragmented environment.
We all intuitively know that an appropriate use of Blockchain technology does have real potential to make a change to how we operate cross-border and within societal groups, bypassing middle layers and removing the trusted centre, but we are yet to see mass adoption of real-world examples of this in practice.
And so, the really big questions are how far can Blockchain go? How will it evolve? What is required to create a step change in the way we live and operate? What are the next steps?
My organisation, the Centre for Citizenship Enterprise and Governance, or “CCEG”, is a Think Tank that has had more than six years in the research and application of the movement of non-financial values, and over two years research and application of those research findings using blockchain technology. We specialise in the tracking of the movement of emotional value, the things that give society well-being, contentment, happiness. That is those values that create engagement and good citizenship within communities.
This work is highly relevant to cities and human settlements. As we understand, track and monitor the value sets of communities and individuals we become enabled to focused investment and channel our resources to materially to improve the well-being and contentment of citizens.
As we build the cities of the future, as we look to make significant change to those urban settlements that are not working, it is simply not enough to just create infrastructure and transportation links. We need to create cities that inspire and generate high quality living, a healthy community and arguably, most importantly a content and happy society.
The blockchain technology can be used as a tool to engage the communities, to give people a voice and a vote. It can be used to delegate power and authority to empower community groups and organisations. Through the use of Distributed autonomous organisations and/or foundations, blockchain can we used to develop the structures on which the cities operate and crucially the mechanisms for change and improvement.
Imagine a city where constant quality feedback from the millions of users of services and facilities are being utilised to adjust, refine and perfect city services for the benefit of the whole. A city where the inhabitants are the owners, and the controllers of the core of the infrastructure, the architects of the future changes and the shapers of their own eco-system. By their nature the citizens and not just engaged, they direct, drive and own the whole settlement.
These will be the cities of the future to which all others will aspire to replicate.
In our daily lives we procure not with money, but with our values. We buy cars that bring us ‘joy’, purchase clothes that ‘empower’, acquire services that make us ‘happy’ … and reject offers that do not match our ‘hopes’. Institutional procurement is moving in the same direction – we no longer decide only on price, speed and quality … but factor in sustainability, modern slavery, and social value. The brands we represent can no longer afford to associate with brands that are not aligned to our values; because of the transparency afforded by social media these intangible assets can decimate our tangible assets in a heartbeat.
The decision metric of procurement is not the just the dollar, but how aligned we are to those we procure from and with. When we decide to cut 3% from or budgets to increase shareholder value, the likelihood is that a community suffers, and worst still across multiple layers in the global supply chain others enter into slavery conditions. Because of you, some will end their lives in abject poverty, and others will celebrate life. Your decisions can lead to the ultimate sacrifice – in your hands is the power that someone lives or dies.
Whether the tender is for stationary or a billion dollar bridge, the future of procurement is changing. Governments already recognise that it is the single greatest instrument to achieve national objectives, enacting laws to align their suppliers with their values. It is surely time for procurement professionals to break away from the equivalence to the mundane world of accountants, auditors and actuaries, but to take our place at the top table in driving world change.
The 4th industrial revolution has provided us with a single instrument called Blockchain that can simultaneously measure, transact and delivery both financial and non-financial value transparently and at scale. This digital technology enables us to establish structures for good by making our financial decisions contingent on our institution’s alignment to a set of non-financial values. If we are being brave, we could involve AI to direct our decisions or to even fully automate the process, bypassing unfair or corrupt procurement which is prevalent wherever scale is involved. Furthermore, through tokenisation every single product, process, project, organisation or even person which is part of procurement can be fully aligned to all the stakeholders in our organisation – shareholders, customers, suppliers, government, environment, staff and the communities we serve.
The Seratio Ecosystem is aided by AI to assess the complex analytical data available and to steer consumers, becoming their online friend and guide
Hyper-Reality by Keiichi Matsuda
Two important trends are making corporates re-think their strategies and relevance in our future economies.
The hallmark of this decade has been the growth of transparency as an instrument to openly display governance in our public offices, demonstrate corporate intentions, reflect the goodness within our products and even prove our own values to each other.
The public sharing of our actions and decisions is rapidly accelerating, particularly with the under 35’s. Social media and mobile apps bring our lives under closer scrutiny, for many now on a daily basis. The things we like, where we socialise what we eat are all commonly shared on social media. But what about the transparency of information to consumers? Whilst price comparison sites and convenient middlemen layers have become commonplace, we remain sadly lacking in coherent, simple signposting for most of the goods and services we buy. To navigate our often intricate lives we readily embrace any kind of ‘Go-NoGo’ filters that allow decisions to be guided with least effort.
Arguably, consumer data, the value sets and preferences may become the most valued asset. As the trend for transparency continues, the analytics behind those choices and preference will shape the retail market push. As important the trend of information to consumers will shape the markets, just as comparison sites have influenced and taken ownership of consumers in the insurance space, information and data providers of the provenance of goods have the same opportunity, to guide, advise and own the relationship with those consumers. Have goods been manufactured with slavery within their supply chain? Are the suppliers and supply chain manufacturing those goods adding value to the world or detracting total value by stealing from their supply chain, or stealing from the environment?
The world is an increasingly complex place and consumers crave simplicity and convenience. For this they are willing to sacrifice, security, privacy and price. At the same time, expectations of free services has never been greater. The traditional model of “Make it Pay” has been turned upside down by the media giants of the last two decades as they offer an app for our lives for free.
So it is somewhat surprising that the consumer “values” data space remains largely untapped. What is not just in our wallet but rather in our heads, our thoughts and our hearts remains opaque to retailers and suppliers as they seek greater levels of optimisation.
The antidote to centralisation is perhaps an even greater challenge to a traditional corporate organisation to navigate. How to remain relevant as a central player and controller in the non-centralised world the new public seem to crave. The traditional model of central controller is broken down in the de-centralised world of the blockchain. This gives rise to new models, new expectations and new philosophies.
The inside out model, fails completely when one tries to implement a blockchain solution with a focus on one key stakeholder. Distributed Ledger Technology ‘DLT’ was created for a peer to peer environment, deliberately to eliminate the need for a central controller. Whilst blockchain is hailed as the next revolution and an even bigger impact than the internet, the largely centralised corporate world is still struggling to create meaningful, viable, value added applications as the models strike at the very heart of its operations.
The Seratio Ecosystem has brought together a model which addresses these two key challenges.
The original start point for the ecosystem was born from academic research into the movement of non-financial value and the understanding of a total value model, taking into account social, environmental and governance measures to assess the impact of a person, project, organisation, city, region or country. As with any measurement system, once metrics were established, agreed, recognised and used, then focus and improvements may follow. The DLT of blockchain technology presented an ideal opportunity to move from the measurement of non-financial value to the transaction of non-financial value.
Communities of people who share common values and share a trading economy have already formed their own currencies, outside of the traditional boundaries of government and regulation and without any central controllers; organic growth. Value sets are recognised, shared and transacted. Community members prefer to seek out those with aligned values, those who share the currency and demonstrate their value sets. This has led to crypto-currencies imbued with values, carrying the attributes of the communities that created them making it more transparent both to those who prefer to operate within these large cohesive, vibrant and transactable communities as well as those who wish to supply and target them with loyalty and rewards programmes.
Recognising the value sets or ‘provenance’ of individuals the Seratio Ecosystem also builds in the provenance of goods and services. The complex system is filtered down to a simple score to direct and guide buyers. In essence, to enable them to buy the things they value, which may be pro a particular value set, for example women or students whilst being steered away from those goods and services which fall outside of their individual values, for example anti-slavery or environmental.
The Seratio Ecosystem is aided by AI to assess the complex analytical data available and to steer consumers, becoming their online friend and guide. By directing purchases in the online space and on the high street value aligned purchases can be easily delivered, with no effort on the part of the consumer.
The use of blockchain and cryptocurrency record and give transparency to the value choices. In the same way that social media has a positive ground-up impact and empowerment, the blockchain has a similar effect demonstrating aligned values and for the first time linking that to the economic activity those values support.
Number by Robert Hloz
To scale the models, we need to build systems and put into practice the ecosystem platforms within a mass market. We welcome new partners who are interested in transforming their impacts and become a key player in this brave new world.
Who will step up and become the Google of the Blockchain World?
Core values are the fundamental beliefs of a person or organization. They act as a guiding principle that help people right or wrong. While walking through a commercial street, have you ever wondered about an app that will notify you of discounts in your preferred retailer, or a product, that align with your values? This is one of the featured functions of the new Seratio AI Bot. On the other hand, it could also help the retailer identify the customers who align with their values and incentivize.
The main objective of the AI bot to help its users make informed decisions based on their values. By building predictive models and using AI algorithms, AI bot will be able to learn user’s preferences and behaviour. This will help the bot identify their next course of action and provide suggestions.
AI Bot receives the required data from multiple core segments of the seratio ecosystem. They are as follows
Seratio API is the software that implements impact assessment & tracking (non-financial value analysis). It is responsible for S/E scores calculation, S/E certificate awards, and has a build-in S/E translator enabling engagement and use of all other non-financial metrics.
From a corporate point of view it can process and combine different data sets, including monitoring product provenance, modern slavery conditions checks, Proof-of-[…] metrics, and convert them all into a single-number non-financial attribute – S/E score.
2. Seratio Platform Wallet
Anonymity, the fundamental idea behind blockchain. Although it provides high security, it breaks trust in blockchain. CCEG’s solution to the problem is to maintain the anonymity while bringing in non-financial intangible attribution (social Value) of each transaction. the fundamental functionality of the platform is to add an extra layer of value to every transaction
Here every user has the option to enter their basic, financial and social information, that helps in generating the S/E (Social Earnings Ratio) certificate through SAPI.
The details which are used to calculate the SE Ratio of an individual include:
• Number of people dependent on the individual
• Value of asset
• Environmental considerate decisions
• Amount spent to help others
• Raised/Helped Raising Amount to help others
• Number of people positively influenced by the individual
In the wallet we can set the SER preferences to do/restrict transactions or interactions with organisations, products, projects and people. Which means, the individual can initiate a transaction only if they satisfy the SE Ratio cut-off threshold mentioned by the Individual.
The Provenance Monitoring is an S/E based complex analytical tool which allows tracking provenance of products, companies, services etc. In terms of product provenance, the platform will track both financial as well as non-financial attributes at every stage of the supply chain. This information is then submitted to blockchain through smart contract. Here it integrates with seratio blockchain platform. When the product moves from one part of the supply chain to another, the information is carried forward and verified with the corresponding information in blockchain. This creates a secure, shared record of exchange for each product along with specific product information.
When the product is complete, the collective information is processed by SAPI and will be able to provide it aggregate social value along with its other tangible information.
4. Rewarding Body
Rewarding body functionality supports organisation to create social value by earning tokens through impact that users make through their personal beliefs or social activity. When paid staffs are rewarded with normal currencies, the social currencies can be distributed to its unpaid supporters/helpers. May it be a reward for referral made by valued customers or for the volunteering for a social cause, rewards can be given to thank the other. Users are rewarded with specified tokens for their social activities based on the rewarding policy set by rewarding body. The Rewarding body will then transfer the tokens to the user directly using user’s QR code.
5. Microshare exchange and Retail
The MICROSHARE is a unit of non-financial, intangible value gained by people through many activities their personal beliefs or social activity (volunteering, charity, carers, etc). The first batch of the microshares are the SER microshares, which was distributed to all who contributed to the ICO. The other altcoins will receive their microshares as well. At this point, microshares will be tradable for another microshare at the microshare exchange.
Soon users will be able to acquire microshares from rewarding body and will be able to buy discount vouchers from retailers. These retailers will empower the community and their values, that they believe in, through discount policies. The discount policy will contain
• Minimum SER value needed to avail discount
• Type of microshare
• Amount of microshare
• Discount offered
Users would be able to purchase the discount in advance and produce it at the retail shop or pay at the counter.
Key outcomes for regular users:
The AI Bot can give suggestions or predictions based on individual’s SE Ratio preferences.
Depending on the user’s values and behavioural patterns, some of the model prediction scenarios are as follows:
• If an individual wants to buy a product, AI Bot can suggest a list of companies, which are providing that product based on the SE score preferred by the individual.
• If an individual wants to improve his SER value, AI Bot can suggest a list of NGOs or Rewarding policies based on their values.
• AI Bot can suggest the available offers and discounts. These offers can be availed using Microshares.
• It should also suggest ways to earn Microshares by integrating itself with rewarding body features in Seratio platform. This should also depend on proximity and preferences of the Customer.
• Different purchase patterns can be generated by the AI Bot, based on previous purchase history details and can suggest the possible future buying nature and other related activities by the individual.
Key outcomes for Organisation/Company:
Similarly, the AI Bot can give suggestions or predictions based on an organization’s preferences and values. Some of the key suggestions could be seen below.
• If a company wants to launch a product and they want to sell it at a targeted volume of customers, then our AI Bot can suggest the SER value that company should hold to reach the targeted volume of customers.
• Also, if a company want to improve their SER value, our AI Bot can suggest the areas where that company’s activities can be rectified or corrected to switch over from a low SER to a preferable SER value.
For example: Our Bot can suggest improving the wages, if currently one of the reason for that company’s low SER value falls in Modern Slavery category.
• For a manufacturing company, looking to improve their SER value, our AI Bot can suggest the list of suppliers whose SER value is higher with whom the company should associate and a list of suppliers with whom the company should not associate at any stages of product manufacturing.
• To improve their CSR activities, the Bot would be able to provide a list of NGO’s or rewarding body and provide insights into their current and historic social activity. The companies could then either collaborate with these organizations or they could conduct their own activities.
Building Predictive Models – Our Approach
Predictive models predict the future behaviour of a user. Predictive modelling is a group of statistical algorithms, which when applied on provided data, outputs a mathematical function/equation/a logical program that helps to predict the outcomes. To understand our approach, a sample steps taken are provided below
Stages of building a Predictive Model:
A. Data Cleaning:
This stage includes the process of detecting, correcting or removing the inaccurate records from the given data source. This is important to maintain the quality of data.
This stage includes:
• Various kind of data importing scenarios like importing various kind of datasets (.csv, .txt), different kind of delimiters (comma, tab, pipe), and different methods (read_csv, read_table)
• Getting the very basic information, such as dimensions, column names, and statistics summary
• Getting basic data cleaning done by removing NAs and blank spaces, imputing values to missing data points, changing a variable type etc.
• Creating dummy variables in various scenarios to help modelling
• Generating simple plots like scatter plots, bar charts, histograms, box plots etc.
B. Data Wrangling:
This is the process of transforming and mapping data from ‘raw data’ form into a desired format using merging, grouping, concatenating etc. for better decision making and analytics.
C. Explore the data with Python
In this step the data which is saved in database from the given datasource, is loaded to Python for further processing. At this stage the data is converted to dataframe, another data structure using a Python package named Pandas.
The following is an illustrative representation of a dataframe with details of a user for the calculation of SE Score.
After this, we will access the required columns from the dataframe by removing the unwanted ones.
D. Creating and training a model
This is the step where the Model is created and trained. For prediction, first we have to find a Function/Model that best describes the dependency between the variables in our dataset, known as Correlation.
We use Linear Regression Algorithm to create the model if the output to be predicted is a continuous variable. Whereas we use Logistic Regression Algorithm if the output variable is a binary or categorical variable.
After this, the dataset is split into training and testing datasets for the purpose of Training the Model.
• The training dataset is the one on which the model is built. This is the one on which the calculations are performed and the model equations and parameters are created.
• The testing dataset is used to check the accuracy of the model. The model equations and parameters are used to calculate the output based on the inputs from the testing datasets. These outputs are used to compare the model efficiency.
Training the model means fitting the created model to the training set of data. At this stage, we have created a model which is trained with the training dataset and is ready to handle to test dataset.
This is the stage where the prediction process happens. The trained predictive model will be ready to give the result/prediction using the test dataset we created in the previous step. The default function predict() in Python is used to predict the result we expect.
In this stage the error between our test predictions and the actual values are calculated for checking the efficiency of our created model.
Explaining the approach using an example:
We are considering a scenario where we want to predict the number of sales a retailer will have on a future date depending upon certain previous factors such as offer/discounts on particular category of products provided for customers who will buy using Microshares.
A. Data Cleaning
The provided data is prepared by removing/updating the inaccurate entries to maintain the quality of data.
B. Data Wrangling
In this stage, we will merge/group/concatenate the data if needed for our requirement when analysing our data source.
• Create a Database in MongoDB
• Create a collection named sales_data
• Save the sample data to sales_data
C. Explore the data with Python
• Load data from database to Python
• Import data source and convert to pandas dataframe
• Get the required columns from dataframe by avoiding the unwanted ones.
D. Creating and training a model
We use Linear Regression Algorithm to create the model as described in the scenario. For creating the model, we will follow the below steps:
• Store a variable SalesCount, we will be predicting value of
• Generate the training set, train
• Select anything not in the training set and put it in the testing set, test
• Print the shapes of both sets
• Initialise the model class, linear_model
• Fit the model to the training data
Now we have trained a Linear Regression Model named linear_model.
At this stage, we can use the trained linear_model to predict the required output/results using the test set test.
• Generate our predictions, linear_predictions for the test set
• Compute error between our test predictions, linear_predictions and the actual values, test
Now, in this stage, we have created a model named linear_model with Python which can predict the Sales Count of a retailer in a future day, by analysing various factors. For example, if there is an offer/discount on a particular ‘Category’ (Clothing, Sports Accessories etc.) on that day or whether the customer will be using ‘Microshares’ to buy and so on.
This Predictive Model can be used by our AI Bot to help the retailers predict the future Sales Count depending upon the various factors mentioned. Likewise, by building different prediction models in our AI Bot, the main objectives like helping users make informed decisions based on their values can be fulfilled.
At the end of Q3 2018 the not-for-profit foundation Centre for Citizenship, Enterprise and Governance (CCEG) will have completed the Seratio Ecosystem to MVP (minimum viable product) level ready to start implementation in Q4 trials with significant partners in cities, regions and countries around the world. This has been a 7 year journey, started in May 2011, to create structures for good that allows us to travel through our lives guided by the beliefs we hold dear to our hearts. By establishing a digital currency of intangible value, we can use AI (Artificial Intelligence) Bots on our mobiles to navigate our interactions with organisations, products, projects, processes and even people based on their provenance and how aligned they are to our own values. Retailers will be able to incentivise and target to differing degrees whole communities that match most closely their corporate values. We will be able to exchange our token instruments of non-financial value with assets of financial value.
Now moving to engagement and integration within global markets across public, private, civil society and community sectors, the Seratio EcoSystem will be governed by its participants through a Distributed Autonomous Foundation (DAF) which itself will integrate with other DAO (organisations) structures representing the Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s) both small and big. We are an international community of over 120,000 with a vision which are ready to deliver, but the next phase is about market need, scalable adoption, and professional operational delivery to give us a world based on sustainable social impact. Our common goal is to form a world transacting on the optimisation of Total Value where both Financial and Non-Financial Value are of equal importance and driven by our individual and collective Values.
In early 2016 we moved from just the measurement of value to the movement of value, adding a transaction of value capability through blockchain. We now have a CCEG Blockchain UN Lab which conducted UK’s first Initial Coin Offering in October 2017 with UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) guidance, an institutional blockchain consultancy and advisory service Rothbadi & Co, a large IP DLT consortium CyberFutures, and a university educational value forum www.EfficiencyExchange.ac.uk.
Justas Structuras Creare (Creating Just Structures) #goodistrending
The system as a whole is 85% complete (green shaded above) at present moment with 100% expected by October 2018. Originally expected to complete by July 2018, the additions of the DAF and Exchanges has extended the timescales a further 2-3 months. Although the securities financial exchange (yellow shaded above) will take further still with Swiss FINMA approval required, the security asset exchange is not an immediate requirement for day one as many others exist which we can use.
Moving Forward with Partners
With the end of the visioning and development cycle, comes a new challenge as we move into pilots and trials of our MVP to test and improve the Seratio system. We have in place already one pilot with a UK brand Mencap which has been delayed now to December 2018 due to their financial constraints, several demo’s and launches in November 2018 in Amsterdam and June 2019 in Copenhagen with Informa Plc (FTSE 100), as well as city launches in Taizhou (August 2018), Yiwu (October 2018), and country launches in Wales (August 2018) and Moldova (November 2018); other partners are now in discussion.
The Seratio Ecosystem is aided by AI to assess the complex analytical data available and to transparently steer consumers becoming their online friend. Similarly for public sector institutions, private sector corporates, civil society NGO’s – and their leaders – to become their values driven guide
As with all the work at CCEG, the Seratio EcoSphere is open source, and part of our contribution towards the United Nation’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
Let’s suppose the probability of someone’s retirement funds to be stolen on a given day is 1 in 10.000. From probability theory:
The probability of this retirement fund not be stolen on a given day is:
Over the course of 35 years, the probability of this retirement fund not be stolen is:
Therefore, the probability of this retirement fund to be stolen before this individual retires is:
A staggering 72.13%!
People who need the most the retirement funds to survive unfortunately live on underdeveloped countries were the willingness of the funds to be stolen are greater when compared to well developed countries. Failure to get the retirement funds on time implies on worse quality of life or maybe even anticipated death.
This means the probability of someone’s retirement funds to be stolen must be virtually zero to concretely save, extend, improve quality of lives of the beneficiaries and family.
Virtually zero probability in this regard is only possible today with the blockchain technology. Even if there is war, corruption, lawfare, persecution, fiat liquidity injection, funds would still be held safe.
Thinking in this problem, CCEG developed possibly the first Blockchain retirement fund ever created. It was launched yesterday and is now live on Seratio wallet.
Investors can decide how many tokens to invest, for how long the tokens will be locked in with precision of a second.
Tokens of the following nature can be locked in:
Ethereum Classic ERC20 tokens
Forked Ethereum ERC20 tokens
Obs.: Underlying blockchain ledger immutability is key to preserve retirement funds.
There are numerous examples of centralized exchanges that were hacked. One of the reasons is because power is centralized on the hands of few powerful individuals.
On the wake of Ethereum technology, Etherdelta was pioneer at applying Ethereum’s blockchain to run critical software pieces of an exchange in a decentralized, safe and transparent way. This feature was a breakthrough and provided, for the first time, an easy and transparent way to list new ERC20 tokens without compromising exchange security.
Still Etherdelta has being criticized for having a poor user interface, non-automatic order book filling, API problems and works with only Ethereum network and tokens. There are currently no decentralized exchanges that work for both Ethereum and Ethereum Classic chains.
Classic Delta fills this gap, it is an exchange that works with ERC20 tokens from both the classic and forked Ethereum networks and promotes positive social behavior by applying zero or reduced fees to selected social coins.
The Centre for Citizenship and Governance (CCEG) is a non-profit Think Tank focusing on the challenge of quantifying the value of non-financial transactions. In January 2017, CEEG launched the CCEG UN Lab, which has developed the Seratio Blockchain. After a successful Initial Coin Offering (ICO) in Q3 of 2017, CCEG has created a web-wallet.
The development of an exchange complements CCEG’s vision to have a robust and sustainable ecosystem in the movement of value.
1.2 Assumptions and Constraints
Etherdelta known API problems
Interface with the Ethereum network
Our own interface with Forked and Classic Ethereum networks
Etherdelta known API problems
Interface with the Ethereum network
Our own interface with Ethereum network
Etherdelta known API problems
Because of Etherdelta alleged problems and due to the evidences that Forkdelta has solved similar problems, it is assumed that ForkDelta doesn’t currently present any API problems and for this reason the starting codebase to be utilized is going to be Forkdelta’s rather than Etherdelta.
Interface with Forked and Classic Ethereum networks
Both services Etherdelta and Forkdelta are interfacing the application with the Ethereum network by means of myetherapi.com. This is a very famous endpoint and might present bottlenecks in providing the interface to the Ethereum blockchain whenever too many calls are sent at the same time.
The effect of clogged calls to the endpoint reflects on user interaction due to increased delays for every operation that involves communication exchange with the Ethereum network. As we have developed Seratio’s own forked and classic Ethereum endpoints we can compare user interaction with both services.
Our own interface with Ethereum network
When we compared our own endpoint, which we built on top of Google Cloud service, with already well stablished Ethereum endpoint service provider Infura, the operational delays we had were substantially lower.
It may also be so that when comparing with myetherapi.com we have a faster private endpoint. Because of this assumption the utilization of our endpoint to speed up ClassicDelta’s user interaction is an alternative as long it doesn’t compromise our wallet service.
To make sure there will be no compromise to services that rely on our endpoint (including Seratio wallet), metrics of how the endpoint is behaving must be in place.
To follow success of EtherDelta by imitating their strategy. The figure 1 illustrates EtherDelta success in numbers, retrieved on April 9th, 2018.
Compared to other decentralized exchanges, Etherdelta has greatest market capitalization as can be seen on Figure 2.
To attract a wider audience to our exchange, other than Seratio’s coins are going to be traded within the platform. But the coins that are going to be naturally more promoted in a non-explicit way are the ones with Seratio’s stamp on it.
Are possible means of promoting:
order in list of tokens
To promote Seratio’s eco-system growth in a healthy way, a fee policy will be set in place to make sure the operation is at the same time profitable, and discretely positions Seratio social coins at premium levels. It is to be considered a variable fee proportional to the amount of SER coins a trader holds.
As a decentralized exchange that works with cryptocurrencies only, the task of running KYC and AML checks is not necessary because that is supposed to have already happened when converting from fiat to cryptocurrencies and vice versa. And not from crypto to crypto as our exchange is being strategically positioned.
A legal understanding of all implications related to this decision is needed to make sure there won’t be any future pitfalls.
2 Technical Overview
A deeper look at ForkDelta source code shows that it is a DApp. DApp is an abbreviated form for decentralized application. As both ForkDelta and EtherDelta are utilizing Ethereum blockchain to perform its server operational side, this means they are basically relying on a combination of two technologies:
Web page front end.
Ethereum smart contracts back end.
 A DApp has its backend code running on a decentralized peer-to-peer network. Contrast this with an app where the backend code is running on centralized servers. If an app=frontend+server, since Ethereum contracts are code that runs on the global Ethereum decentralized peer-to-peer network, then DApp = frontend + contracts.
3.1 What is ClassicDelta?
ClassicDelta is a free, open-source, client-side interfaced exchange.
It allows users to interact directly with ClassicDelta’s smart contracts while users remain full control of their keys & funds.
User and only the user is responsible for its security.
ClassicDelta cannot recover user’s funds or freeze user’s account if it visits a phishing site or lose its private key.
3.2 ClassicDelta is not a Bank
When user opens an account with a bank or exchange, they create an account for it in their system.
The bank keeps track of user’s personal information, account passwords, balances, transactions and ultimately its money.
The bank charge fees to manage user’s account and provide services, like refunding transactions when user’s card gets stolen.
The bank allows the user to write a check or charge its debit card to send money, go online to check its balance, reset its password, and get a new debit card if it loses it.
User has an account with the bank or exchange and they decide how much money it can send, where it can send it, and how long to hold on a suspicious deposit. All for a fee.
3.3 ClassicDelta is an Interface
The user must already have an account created on Ethereum blockchain with access to a cryptographic set of numbers: its private key and its public key (address).
The handling of user’s keys happens entirely on user’s computer, inside its browser.
ClassicDelta never transmits, receives or stores user’s private key, password, or other account information.
ClassicDelta charges a transaction fee in accordance to publicly provided fee policy.
Users are simply using ClassicDelta’s interface to interact directly with ClassicDelta’s smart contracts deployed to both Ethereum blockchains.
If user sends its public key (address) to someone, they can send user ETH, ETC to that address. 👍
If user sends its private key to someone, they now have full control of user’s account. 👎
3.4 ClassicDelta needs each user to understand that it cannot…
Access user’s account or send user’s funds for it.
Recover or change user’s private key.
Recover or reset user’s password.
Reverse, cancel, or refund transactions.
3.5 The user and only the user is responsible for its security.
The user must be diligent to keep its private key and password safe. User’s private key is sometimes called its mnemonic phrase, keystore file, UTC file, JSON file, wallet file.
If user loses its private key or password, no one can recover it. If user enters its private key to a phishing website, it will have all its funds taken.
3.6 If ClassicDelta can’t do those things, what’s the point?
Because that is the point of decentralization and the blockchain. The user doesn’t have to rely on its bank, government, or anyone else when it wants to move its funds. The user doesn’t have to rely on the security of an exchange or bank to keep its funds safe. And that is exactly why the blockchain and cryptocurrencies are valuable.
3.7 Movement of financial and non financial value
Money is a model of value. CCEG is confident that also non financial value can be modeled and traded likewise. To buy land with love, for example:
What a lovely purchase you’ve made.
That would be fantastic wouldn’t it?
4 Functional Context
As can be seen on Figure 3, the user interacts with ClassicDelta DApp willing to perform either one of the two use cases:
Collect market information, where the user utilizes the website as source of information to accessorize its decisions regarding its assets.
Exchange ERC20 tokens where concretely the tokens are converted from one to another nature and which depends on previous item.
The Exchange ERC20 tokens use case comprises the following two other user cases:
ERC20 tokens trade, where new buy or sell orders can be placed.
ERC20 tokens Input/Output, where tokens or ethers are deposited, transferred or withdrawn.
ClassicDelta must provide infrastructure to support all the use cases comprised by ClassicDelta DApp component which is drawn on Figure 3 as the major surrounding rectangular box.
To provide an exchange that works for both forked Ethereum and Ethereum Classic, the components and connections shown on Figure 4 are needed.
Where the FrontEnd component is the web application that holds the user interface in place and organizes accesses to the back end (comprised by both Ethereum networks smart contracts) to ultimately fulfill user’s expectations.
In the development of the Seratio wallet, the following components were already developed and can be used by Classic Delta exchange too:
Forked Ethereum Endpoint
Ethereum Classic Endpoint
4.1 User Requirements
ClassicDelta Dapp needs to provide the functionality to support two types of users already represented as actors on Figure 3.
Because ClassicDelta is a decentralized exchange, there is a reduced set of exclusive activities for ClassicDelta’s admin to perform. Still, in a normal scenario, the admin must manage each ERC20 token lifecycle by listing or delisting tokens and to make sure information provided within each token project is legit and not misleading.
A regular user needs to upload locally its already generated public and private key to unlock the exchange functionality. The safety of this process is of user’s responsibility since ClassicDelta only acts as an interface to the blockchain and does not store personal sensitive information in its servers.
ClassicDelta’s admin has more responsibilities in the sense it is a regular user but also a key actor for the working and maintenance of the platform. ClassicDelta’s admin will be responsible to orient community and drive requests accordingly to technical team. Tasks are split on two fronts, the backend mostly blockchain development and the frontend, mostly user interface and pursue of user expectations.
4.2 Data Flow Diagrams
Figure 3: Sequence diagram of general data flow.
As can be seen in the sequence diagram of Figure 3, the basic data flow starts with the user request to the web server requesting the webpage or general information. Consequently, to render the information accordingly, the frontend needs fresh data from the connected blockchain endpoints, in this case Ethereum Classic and forked Ethereum.
There are more specific diagrams that are subject to be detailed in the development process comprising the following scenarios:
Creation of new account
Account import, account forget
Ledger Nano S integration
Set gas price
Place buy, sell order
Cancelling an order
Deposit, withdrawals, transfers.
4.3 Logical Data Model/Data Dictionary
The blockchain can be considered a decentralized database where a lot of historical information can be retrieved just by browsing it. However, the speed of access to blockchain data depends on a variety of factors and has associated costs. Since the blockchain is constantly writing history to the distributed ledger and once a block is written there is virtually no way to change it, there are specific use cases where a regular database can be handy to post attach information to previously written blocks. A good example of when this is needed is in the addition of metadata identifying and linking a dropped by a replaced transaction.
But more complex queries throughout a huge amount of data (more than 50 GB) can be used upon a regular database to extract valuable information. One example is extracting technical analysis indicators with artificial intelligence techniques to better orient in which tokens the user should rather invest on a given Friday.
4.4 Functional Requirements
To provide the user with updated information about the order book status in real time (with a delay no greater than 5 seconds).
Execute deposits, withdrawals, transfers, buy and sell orders placement smoothly and without human intervention. Humans prohibited here!
Whenever there is a relevant blockchain event, keep information shown in the website coherent to blockchain’s state.
To protect privacy and user data with state of the art technology.
To have the most critique parts if not the entirety of the exchange code open source with bug bounty programs to increase safety and reduce risk surface. This follows Parity’s state of the art safety procedure.
Periodic auditing by selected companies.
 http://paritytech.io/the-multi-sig-hack-a-postmortem/. On Wednesday 19th July, 2017 a bug found in the multi-signature wallet (“multi-sig”) code used as part of Parity Wallet software was exploited by parties unknown. As of the time of writing, three wallet accounts holding large balances of ETH have been compromised and the balances moved into accounts held by the attacker. The self-titled “White Hat Group” used the same exploit to secure the other compromised wallets within Ethereum, with the stated intention of returning control to the original owners.
5 Follow up
The milestones were raised accordingly to the foreseeable future based on research already made and are present on Table 1.
Table 1: Milestones for the operation of Classic Delta exchange
The ClassicDelta organization was created at GitHub to fork ForkDelta. The starting web server is GitHub to speed-up development process. But as soon the project scales a more professional service is planed to take place with Cloudflare DDoS protection around October 2018. The exchange is already beta launched and can be tested here for forked Ethereum network.
Social Value has been gaining focus since the Social Value Act 2012 came out in January 2013, requiring public sector contracts to consider including Social Value, asking bidders to offer added value within the community, assisting with the gaps that reduced funding has created.
Making the decision regarding which Social Value offering is more valuable is a subjective matter. How is it possible to understand if a career talk in a school will have more impact than that of an employability workshop? The decision would likely come down to someone believing in one more than the other, but this doesn’t mean it’s the right choice for the community.
With funding cuts and bottom lines to protect, companies want to be as effective and efficient with their investments as possible. Asking people to fill in feedback surveys will assist improvements to an extent, but company directors want to understand what it means in a language they understand – money.
At Seratio we use the Social Earnings Ratio (SER), we often use a combination of big data, social media and sentiment analysis, although only positive sentiment is measured, with company financial value to calculate the total value. The metric uses a citizenship framework and the same algorithm, no matter what size the organisation is, the Social Earnings Ratio metric provides a financial value making results easy to articulate and understand.
SER results show $ for $ how effective a social investment has been, encouraging positive change where required. At Seratio we work with public and private companies through the tender process, analysing offerings made by bidders and providing a financial figure, to enable procurement teams to make an objective decision regarding the Social Value offerings.
Below is a table which displays an example of the Value of Social contributions from a tender process. This table content demonstrates the previous level of understanding of what is required. Public contracts only ask for 20% Social Value, 52% is unusually high and leaves a question as to whether the bidders here understood that they would be monitored throughout the contract should they be successful and win.
At Seratio, we support the procurement teams throughout the tender process, from the Selection Questionnaire (SQ, also known as the PQQ) right through to the assessment of the applications, providing a detailed report which include results like the table above, enabling procurement teams to make an objective decision. If insufficient data is provided we seek further information.
Social Value has been a challenge for bidders to understand, because they have had no way of knowing the true value of their offering, and some not providing required data, even with support.
To resolve this issue, we have built an online portal which enables bidders to enter data to calculate and understand the true Social Value of their offerings. Bidders can enter the details required, for each of their offerings and the portal calculates the financial value for them.
Details required for the calculation include the cost of the project and an approximation of people who will benefit and asks for an estimation of positive feedback. The bidder can experiment with the data they enter so they gain an understanding of the value they will create from the offering and provides them with a benchmark of the desired impact.
Having a target stimulates focus and drive to achieve it, Social Value is often full of promises, but not always fulfilled. This process encourages people to take ownership of their offerings and targets to assist with the successful achievement of them.
The vision for the Bidders Portal is to offer a free service to organisations which encourages them to include Social Value within their contracts, this will enable bidders to understand the true value of their promises and commit to achieving them. The results enable suppliers to offer their teams a KPI to achieve and communities benefit from more Social Value projects.
We have tools that can manage and monitor the process throughout the contract, although this is not a free service.
Another potential KPI is Modern Slavery. We have developed a metric which calculates the risk levels within an organisation www.modernslavery.uk
It is a very quick and easy process, asking for a few details, which must all come from the latest published financial accounts; financial year, total salary, total staff and the results of the staff survey for that financial year.
We provide a RAG result which enables organisations to review their results and proceed with the necessary changes to resolve the issues. It identifies where the Modern Slavery risk is in the supply chain. Protecting the brand and investing in the people and reputation of the organisation. The results are not shared with anyone. Below is an example of a RAG result.
In time there is hope that organisations will make Social Value and Modern Slavery a priority, a KPI, to be able to prove they understand what impact they are making on people’s lives and make improvements where required, to provide the best possible service, treating all their employees fairly, making the greatest positive impact that they can.
We also recognise that people may not feel comfortable whistle blowing, in fear that their anonymity is at risk. We have set up a sight for anyone who feels there are issues within their organisation, an anonymous whistle blowing site www.modernslavery.uk which enables us to pass on the information received to the named organisation, but with peace of mind to the person providing the information, feeling safe using an external independent organisation.
It is important for people to feel they can be honest without judgement or fear of consequences for doing what they feel is right, and for companies to understand if there are issues within their work place, so that they can be resolved.
For more information about Seratio Limited and our services, please visit www.seratio.com
The Online University where “The Best” get rewarded with a job opportunity
Blockchain Education Program
Everywhere I go at the minute, the world is talking about Blockchain, and its abilities to solve many problems, the ability to fix the world, the stories are fascinating, I have met people from all walks of life, people who work on the track for Jaguar Land Rover, CEO’s of corporations, the Head of HR for Global brands whilst zip wiring in Snowdonia, they all want to know about Blockchain and what does it actually mean for them.. Plus how much money can they make on the Crypto stuff? Confusion everywhere.
I haven’t seen this much excitement since the days of the internet and Social Media, the difference right now is that with the Internet and Social Media is available there is tons of information; but still not many places to go that you can learn and trust the information being given.
An opportunity exists right now for an online University / training programme, managed by Practitioners, the people who have worked with the technology for many years, the team who have completed practical real-life delivery of real projects, not just those who have been on a course and now claim to be experts, a team who fully understand Blockchain and its potential, a team who can create a career path once the learning is complete for the student.
So we are creating an online Blockchain Strategy Program, for students from all walks of life, professional individuals or just curious people can subscribe to the program and immerse themselves and learn about Blockchain, with our six-week full on program.
Content is being written, the platform is being prepared, and the marketing machine is already turning.
Students will be given a certificate of learning from a recognised practitioner organization, Rothbadi & Co.
Pathway to Success
The program is designed to provide a pathway for those students who want to learn, want to test and then want to implement using Blockchain.
Firstly students will subscribe to our six-week course; this will then provide them with a certificate for the ones who pass the course successfully, this will enable them to use this certificate in the real world as they have learnt from the elite providers (Rothbadi & Co), giving them credibility to any prospective employer or partner.
Secondly, for those students who wish to progress, Stage 2, an online learning centre with access to our many online live consultants, whereby students will have their own idea, and we will help them test their concepts and take them through to a final proof of concept. (We may decide that we wish to support them beyond this stage and help deliver or share the knowledge).
Lastly, unlike any other training provider, Rothbadi & Co are in a unique position whereby the students who pass through phase 2, the best of the best could be offered a consultancy contract with Rothbadi & Co, providing them with the capacity to earn back the fees paid upfront. (“Money Back”)
Content & Platform
Alongside the above, Rothbadi &Co are working with several universities who are helping to compile the content for the courses.
We will also be working with larger organisations to allow them test Blockchain, a light touch, several week consultancy service, whereby they will bring a problem, and we will show them the result using Blockchain; this will provide them with the information to decide to go or not go with this exciting technology.
Follow on consultancy will be offered beyond this stage should the corporate decide to progress.